• Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
    on July 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Al Jali, Fatma M. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that affects your brain and spinal cord. In MS, the coating that protects your nerves (myelin) is damaged, and this causes a range of symptoms. There's no cure for multiple sclerosis So there are studies to find treatment by use stem cells, vitamin D and antihistamine (Clemastine) Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord. In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged. Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms. It's estimated that there are more than 2.3 million people worldwide diagnosed with MS. It's most commonly diagnosed in people in their 20s and 30s, although it can develop at any age. It's about two to three times more common in women than men. There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms. In this report we'll discuss studies on MS cur

  • The Prevalence of Glaucoma in Diabetic Patients
    on June 30, 2018 at 12:00 am

    The Prevalence of Glaucoma in Diabetic Patients Elfigih, Ahmed Omar B. Diabetes is a major health issue which is increased due to the changes in the life style, and Glaucoma is a major cause of worldwide irreversible blindness. There are three studies that are shown in this report that there is a relation between diabetes and glaucoma. The first study conducted 1200 diabetics for a routine examination and to check if they had glaucoma, the results showed that the majority of patients who had glaucoma had Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). The second study was a cohort study for 841 diabetics to confirm the association of glaucoma in senior diabetic patients, the results were positive and it was significantly associated to the duration of diabetes. The last study was a specific for POAG to confirm if it is the most common type of glaucoma for diabetics, the results of the study showed clear evidence of an excess of POAG in diabetic population Diabetes mellitus represents a significant public health issue which has become increasingly prevalent due to changes and trends in diet, lifestyle, and consequently, the rate of obesity. Since 1980, the worldwide prevalence of diabetes has nearly quadrupled to an estimated 422 million affected persons in 2014. Glaucoma represents the leading cause of worldwide irreversible blindness, as defined by best-corrected central visual acuity of less than 3/60 or a visual field of less than 10° in the better seeing eye. It is characterized by pathognomonic optic nerve changes which result in progressive visual field loss over time. Whether or not an association exists between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma has been an issue of debate in the past, but findings from several studies in recent years seem to suggest that the risk of glaucoma among diabetic patients may be greater than once believed. 1 In this report, we evaluate the prevalence of glaucoma in diabetic patients

  • The Potential of Neurogranin as a Prognostic Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease
    on June 30, 2018 at 12:00 am

    The Potential of Neurogranin as a Prognostic Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease Elfigih, Seraj Omar B. ynaptic dysfunction is linked to cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, measurement of synapse proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be useful biomarkers to monitor synaptic degeneration. Neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with cognitive decline and is a potential novel biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. This report compares three different studies that tested the ability of neurogranin to act as a biomarker for Alzheimer related decline in cognitive function and predicting the advancement of the disease by detecting synaptic loss. The first study was conducted within the memory clinic-based Amsterdam Dementia Cohort where it compared cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin of patients with Alzheimer’s to that of controls with normal cognitive function it showed that baseline CSF levels of neurogranin in patients with AD were higher than in cognitively normal participants. The second study tested the performance of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin to predict cognitive decline and brain injury in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. An in-house immunoassay was used to analyze neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid samples from a cohort of patients who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer’s disease with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, as well as in cognitively normal subjects, the results demonstrated that cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin is increased already at the early clinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease and predicts cognitive deterioration and diseaseassociated changes over time. The third and final study was A cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study of cognitive decline in patients with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls, concluded that CSF levels of the synaptic marker neurogranin offer diagnostic and prognostic utility for early symptomatic AD that is comparable to other CSF markers. Also, CSF neurogranin complements the collective ability of these markers to predict future cognitive decline in cognitively normal individuals and, therefore, will be a useful addition to the current panel of AD biomarkers Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks, it is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases. Alzheimer's disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and the fifth-leading cause of death among those age 65 and older. It also is a leading cause of disability and poor healt

  • The Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy In Benghazi Diabetic Patients at Benghazi Diabetic Center
    on June 30, 2018 at 12:00 am

    The Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy In Benghazi Diabetic Patients at Benghazi Diabetic Center Roaeid, Aya Ragab B. Aim: The object of this study is to report on the prevalence of proteinuria in diabetic patients at BDC. Material and method: Included in this study 123 diabetic patients ( 75 “61%” males and 48 “39%” females ). All patients were subjected to through history including age, duration of diabetes, presence of hypertension, type of treatment, urea, creatinine, fasting blood glucose, and HBA1C. Date is presented as mean and as percentage of total. Results: Off 123 diabetic patients, 75 are males and 48 are females. Mean age of the whole group is 9.6 (1-33 Y) Mean duration of diabetes of the whole group is 6.5 (5.6-11.6 Y) Mean HbA1c is 89.4mg Off all patients, 45 were hypertensive and 78 were not Off all patients, 47 had microalbuminuria and 5 had macroalbuminuria Off all patients, 73 patients were on oral treatment, 3 patients were on insulin, and 46 patients were on combined. Diabetes Mellitus It is a group of metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both1